Skill training is the need of the hour
1. Nine out of Ten Indian employees lack social security!
For the developing country like India the bare estimate(study of Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) says, out of 450 million workers,200 are informally engaged in non-formal sector,210 million are engaged in agro based sector which is again non-formal and rest 40 million are in formal sector. The financial crisis-global recession leads snatching of jobs from many hands and forced them to be informally engaged with low pay-high risk-no protection environment.
The skill hands never allow the situation to arise.
1.1) Employment Scenario: Global
World employment report 1989-99 speaks:
» Out of 6 billion population in 1997 about 50% was in the labour force
» 160 million persons are fully unemployed
» 30% of the employed labour force is under employed.
Strategically Recommendation are :
» Timely investment in Skill Development and Training
» Enhancing Skill level of workers
» Responsive training system
» Effective partnership of all stake holders.
1.2) National Scenario:
Employment in the Unorganised sector continues to be dominating at 93% of the total employment.
Scope of additional employment in the organized sector is not significant due to modern technologies and competitiveness in marketing the products.
Significant employment generation in the tertiary sector particularly in service industries.
Substantial growth of employment in small and un-organised sector.
Casual labour and self-employment continued to play a pivotal role in rehabilitating the unemployed mass.
1.3) Skill level of Indian Workers:
About 80% of the job aspirants in employment exchanges do not possess any professional skill
20% of the male work force and 11% of female work force of urban area and 10% of the male work force and 6% of the female workforce in rural area posse’s marketable skill.
Productivity in the un-organised sector continues to be low due to low/unskill workers.
Percentage of educated unemployment goes up due to mismatch of education level and skill requirement in the employment opportunities.
2) Formal Training System:
ITIs / ITCs imparting training to about 7.00 lakhs youth in India have no doubt, been meeting a significant part of Skill requirement of organized sector.
Training system needs flexibility for quick response to the labour market changes.
Large mass of workers in the un-organised sector need adoption by the formal Training System for improving skill level and productivity in turn.
Training system needs coordination from various level particularly industries.
Greater involvement of industries in planning and running the training system.
2.1) Major Issues:
Even though ITI graduates do better than the general graduates in the labour market, outcomes are still not encouraging.Limited growth in the demand of workforce in the manufacturing sector, in fact students trained for jobs that do not exist.Mismatch between skill attained and skill requirement.Shortage of trained faculties.
External Efficiency :
Employment of ITI /ITC graduates continues to be limited to 50% in all the three states in the organized sector.
Labour market success rate of ITI graduates are better then ITC graduates though the internal efficiency is poor.
Despite of large number of ITI / ITC graduates, the employers do not find workers with right skill.
ITI / ITC graduates lack in computer skill, communication skill, practical use of machines and team work practices.
3) Informal Training System:
Community Polytechnics :
» Community Polytechnics are the part of the formal sector AICTE accredited Polytechnics ,
» There are 13 no. of CPs functioning in the State with annual out come of 1500 trained youths with no pre requisite qualification in 30 no. of informal sector trades of 3 months to 9 months duration.
» The basic objective are to transfer of technologies to communities, manpower development and rendering technical / support services, promote economy standard in the tertiary sector.
» Highlights of Achievements
Development of Women and Children in Rural Area ( DWACRA)
» Introduced in 1982-83 as a part of Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) aimed at providing income – generating skill and promoting activities among poor rural women.
» The programme is implemented by District Rural Development Agencies (DRDA) through NGOs with financial support from Council For Advancement of People’s Action and Rural Technology (CAPART) under Ministry of Rural Area and Employment.
Training of Rural Youth for Self Employment (TRYSEM)
» Established in 1979 , TRYSEM aims at developing technical and entrepreneurial skill among rural youth at the age of 18 to 35 years belonging to BPL categories to take up income – generating activities.
» Curtailed in the year 1998 due to poor linkage with financing institutions for Self Employment.
Support to Training and Employment Programme (STEP)
» The programme is implemented by Women & Child Welfare Department
Khadi and Village Industry Commissions (KVIC)
» The training introduced in 1990-91 is given in the broad areas such as : Artisan courses , General Management , Salesmanship , Marketing Management , Entrepreneurship Development , Supervisory Courses, Textile Chemistry, Accountancy , Refresher Courses .
» Curtailed in the year 1997-98 due to poor linkage with the Financing Institutions , the certificate awarded by KVIC were not recognized the employers other than KVIC and outdated syllabi.
Prime Minister’s Rojgar Yojana (PMRY)
» Introduced in Oct. 1993, it aims at providing Wage and Self Employment to educated un-employed youths aged between 18 to 35 years
» The Scheme has generated over whelming response among educated un-employed youths
» The major limitation being inadequate technical skill for setting of Micro Enterprises / Manufacturing Units
4) Outcomes and Issues:
Formal Training System, due to its entry requirements, geographical mapping is not suitable to accommodate huge mass of un-organised sector workers
Most workers continue to learn trades on the job through informal apprentice at their place of work from other low skilled craft people
The informal sector workers must have the level of knowledge and skill on technical, market survey, cost of quality control, financing and marketing.
(Source-ILO Study Report)
5) Address to the non-formal Sector productivity in the State:
Organised sector be it of public or private can not absorb the huge pool of the unemployed mass. To mitigate the growing problem of unemployment in the State, Government have initiated a number of steps as part of the overall plan strategy including exploring the scope for innovative self-employment project under various sectors and to create large scale self-employment ensuring more productive and efficient use of the available human resources. Govt. of Orissa through State Employment Policy-2005, intends to bring synergy in different development sectors in terms of creation of self-employment opportunity for the unemployed mass of the State. The joint initiative of State Employment Mission and DTE&T,Orissa is through optimum utilization of existing infrastructure of Engineering Schools /Polytechnics/ Engineering Colleges/ ITIs /ITCs. Subsequently, the Skill Development Initiatives through Modular Employable Skill of GoI /MoLE has been introduced to bring out large pool of trained workers at the emerging industrial scenario of the State.